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Short Course Monitors Needed

Short Course Monitors are needed to help with classes.  Monitors take courses for free. Interested? Contact Marion Zoretich for more information. Priority is given to students.

Course Descriptions

Sunday 29 September

8:30 – 10:30
SC01: Colorants for Inkjet Applications
Instructor: Alex Shakhnovich, Cabot Corporation
Track: Inkjet Materials
Level:  Introductory

This course is an introduction to available colorant choices for office, commercial, packaging and textile inkjet printing with focus on three areas:

  • Colorants for inkjet, including spot colors
  • Dispersion methods
  • Colorant failure modes in inks

The first part covers the choices of color pigments available for Inkjet. Specific attention is paid to yellow colorants, being the least stable component and to available magenta and red options as the most weak and expensive segment of CMY color space. Green, orange, violet and red will also be reviewed.
The second part of the course covers two principal dispersion technologies – surface modification and polymeric dispersants– with the advantages and drawbacks of both approaches discussed in-depth. Finally, the course discusses the thermal and light stability of color pigments and describes colorants failure modes in inks during storage and during the printing process.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Intelligently choose the colorants for inkjet inks, understanding differences in properties and trade-offs.
  • Understand what questions should be addressed when selecting colorants(s) for a new application or a retrofit.
  • Become familiar with major technologies used for preparing inkjet dispersions.

Intended Audience:  technical and commercial people, who would like to get some fundamental understanding of pigment chemistry and selection of pigment dispersions for inkjet printing.

Alex Shakhnovich is a Research Fellow at Cabot Corporation in Billerica, MA and an Adjunct Professor at University of Massachusetts. He has more than 40 years of experience in chemistry and application of colorants for plastics, textile, and inkjet. His specific focus at Cabot is preparation of surface-treated organic pigments. He has been awarded 12 US and European patents in the inkjet area. Shakhnovich received his MS in chemistry from Moscow State University and his PhD in heterocyclic chemistry (1979) from Institute of Dyes and Intermediates (Moscow, Russia). Shakhnovich is a co-author of the chapter Pigments for InkJet Applications edited by World Scientific Publishing Co. ©2010. His research interests include syntheses, surface modifications, and application of organic colorants.

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8:30 – 10:30
SC16: Electrophotography & Toner Technology — From Prints to 3D Objects
Instructor: Dinesh Tyagi
Track: Fabrication Technologies
Level:  Overview

Toner composition and the characteristics of the final output are intricately related to each other. To achieve the desired performance in an electrophotographic (EP) based object, whether it’s a print or a 3D object, the features in the toner and fusing/fixing technology must be properly selected from the start. This course focuses on the proper design of toners to bring about the intended physical properties in the final product. In the first part of the course, basic steps used in an EP cycle are briefly described to demonstrate how these fundamental steps control the design of toner-based imaging systems.

Toner polymer selection is dictated by the toner manufacturing process used to produce them. The course describes how the toner polymers are selected for both Melt Pulverized Toners (MPT) and Chemically Prepared Toners (CPT). The effect of various toner additives on fusing and other toner properties are also explained. The choice of engineering thermoplastic for AM applications would often limit the manufacturing technology options available to produce such a toner. The physics of various fusing technologies are discussed, with a specific focus on each technology’s strengths and weaknesses. Use of additives in toners to help with the fixing steps during the object creation is described.

The course covers how new toner developments are being guided by environmental, governmental, and health regulations. In addition, some of the new developments that are taking place in toners, including low energy requirements, “green” toners that comprise bio-resins, and toner/print recyclability are discussed.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Acquire a basic understanding of the EP process and limitations for each sub-system.
  • Gain insight into toner component selection and their manufacturing processes, along with the impact of each on toner properties, image fixing, and print physicals of a print.
  • Learn about toner components selection criteria and the limitations imposed by toner manufacturing technologies.
  • Understand various basic polymeric concepts that influence toner properties and characteristics of the final product.
  • Identify and comprehend advantages and disadvantages of different fusing technologies that have been developed and are used throughout the industry.
  • Learn about new regulations from various agencies that may impact toner properties.

Intended Audience:  anyone directly or indirectly involved with toner based EP printing system and/or those are engaged in toner formulation development efforts to meet wide range of image and toner manufacturing requirements. The course is particularly useful for engineers and scientists who wish to gain insight into how final properties of an EP object may be controlled via toner component selection and design.

After receiving his PhD degree from Virginia Tech (1985), Dinesh Tyagi joined Eastman Kodak Company as a Research Scientist where he specialized in the field of digital printing and polymer research. He was inducted into Kodak’s Distinguished Inventors Gallery in 1994. In 1999, he moved to NexPress Solutions, which was later acquired by Kodak. Tyagi recently joined Lexmark International where he continues to work in the area of toners and electrophotography as he has done through most of his professional career. Tyagi has been granted more than 300 patents worldwide. In 2011, he was awarded the IS&T Chester F. Carlson Award for his innovations and broad contributions to electrophotographic toner technology; in 2014, he received the Robert F. Reed Technology Medal for his involvement in the graphic communications industry.

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SC02: Technology of Textile Printing                               
Instructor: Enrico Sowade, Zschimmer & Schwarz Mohsdorf GmbH & Co. KG
Track: Textile Printing
Level: Introduction and Overview

Over the past few years, inkjet printing of textiles has attracted increasing interest and the market is growing rapidly with an annual output of more than 1 billion m² of digitally printed textiles. Just as inkjet printing has become the dominant technology for ceramic tile decoration, it is thought that inkjet printing might also displace screen printing for textile applications. This course provides an introduction to digital textile printing covering textile materials, dyeing, markets, and chemical textile treatments—with the focus set on digital textile printing. The course also discusses the future of digital application of functional features for textiles such as flame retardancy, hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, and catalytic pollutant degradation.   

Benefits:
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Get an overview about textile materials and machinery.
  • Discover and analyze the textile market structure, size, and market distribution.
  • Learn the basics of textile dyeing and textile chemistry.
  • Discover chemical pre- and post-treatments for textiles.
  • Understand the fundamentals of textile inkjet inks and the interaction with the textile fibers.
  • Explore potentially inkjet-printed functional features for textiles.

 
Intended audience: beginners and advanced beginners, graduate students, engineers, scientists, and managers interested in digital textile printing.

Enrico Sowade obtained his MA in print and media technology from Chemnitz University of Technology (2009). He has held different positions in the department of digital printing and imaging technology at the University, completing his PhD in the field of functional inkjet printing (2017). Sowade is currently working as R&D project manager for Digital Printing in the Textile Auxiliaries Division at Zschimmer & Schwarz. Based on multiple national and international cooperative research and development projects, he has many years of experience in the field of inkjet printing as digital manufacturing technology.

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10:45 – 12:45

SC03: Fluid Dynamics and Acoustics of Piezo Inkjet Printing
Instructor: J. Frits Dijksman, University of Twente
Track: Inkjet Processes
Level: Advanced/Specialist

Inkjet printing is all about depositing of on-demand-droplets with a well-defined volume and speed on a precisely given location on a substrate. A piezo driven print head is an ensemble of many closely-packed and highly-integrated micro channels, each channel partly covered with a piezoelectric actuator. Each channel acts as an acoustic cavity, of which the fluid dynamical and acoustical characteristics in the time and frequency domain determine the droplet generating properties of the print head. Typical is that in the layout there are no valves of other means to control the flow direction.
The aim of this course is to couple the characteristics of droplet formation and landing to the acoustics of the fluidics of the print head behind the nozzle.  The basic fluid dynamical and acoustical characteristics will be discussed by considering a Helmholtz model composed of a cavity covered with a piezo actuator, a nozzle and a throttle. The throttle makes the connection of the pump to the main ink supply channel.  Special attention is paid to non-linear effects such as jetting of viscoelastic inks and axi- and non-axisymmetric meniscus motions. Such motions may lead to the jetting of very small droplets or droplets with poor directionality.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Understand the interactions between the acoustics of the fluidics of the piezo inkjet print head and the characteristics of droplet formation,
  • Get an impression about non-standard effects such as the jetting of viscoelastic inks and high frequency meniscus oscillations in the nozzle.

Intended Audience:  engineers and scientists interested in piezo driven print heads, students in the area of print head physics, and engineers and scientists working with biomedical applications of inkjet technology.

Frits Dijksman is emeritus professor in the field of innovative biomedical applications of inkjet technology at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. He has worked with Philips Research for more than 30 years and his main area of interest has been inkjet technology for consumer and non-consumer applications, such as PolyLED display manufacturing and the printing of biomolecules.

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SC04: Practical Inkjet Ink Characterization
Instructor: Mark Bale, DoDxAct Ltd.
Track: Inkjet Materials
Level: Introductory

Inkjet technology is being applied to a wide array of printing and fabrication challenges that are demanding fluids (inks) which encompass diverse materials and chemistries. This course looks at the ways these inks can be tested in a laboratory environment for application suitability to industrial processes, up to and including conducting exhaustive jetting experiments with different print heads and the challenges typically faced. The focus is in the practical use, rather than full explanation of the theory, of each test or measurement system described.

Benefits
This course will enable an attendee to:

  • Learn about the demands of fluids for different applications
  • Understand the tools typically applied to non-jetted characterization of fluid properties
  • Apply laboratory testing to screen ink formulations and discriminate the good from bad
  • See how to define laboratory-based jetting and printing experiments
  • Discover from real-life examples how jetting can be used to predict and solve issues
  • Apply the new learning to formulate their own testing methodologies

Intended Audience: scientists, engineers, and R&D managers wanting to expand their understanding of the equipment and methods to reliably take inks from the laboratory to the final application.
Mark Bale is a PhD Physicist (Birmingham, UK, 2001) with 15+ years in industrial inkjet R&D ranging from ink formulation to print/deposition process prototyping & optimization using jetting and printing methods. Application experience includes OLEDs and photovoltaics, decorative surfaces, wide format graphics, labels & packaging, textiles and bio-printing. Passionate about print heads and their uses, he now runs his own technical consultancy, helping organizations of all sizes maximize the potential of their inkjet-based developments.

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SC05: Industrial Inkjet: Binder-Jet, Direct-Jet 3D Printing with Inkjet: Technology Overview, Challenges and Opportunities
Instructor: Rich Baker, Integrity Industrial Ink Jet Integration LLC
Track: Introduction to Fabrication Technologies
Level: Introductory

3D (and 4D) printing is rapidly becoming a mature commercial fabrication process, utilizing a myriad of non-inkjet deposition techniques, such as Stereo Lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), as well as inkjet techniques, such as Direct-Jet and Binder-Jet.  Inkjet, however, offers a number of unique traits and advantages that sets it apart as a viable candidate for progressing 3D printing into true high-throughput, multi-material, heterogeneous fabrication.  

This course will guide the attendees through the various 3D deposition methods, their technologies, processes and pros and cons, including the currently employed techniques of Direct Jet and Binder-Jet applications.  The course will then move to explore some of the advantages of inkjet, discussing how inkjet can enable, greater speed and enable multi material 3D printing.  Finally, the course will discuss some of the untapped potentials that inkjet could enable, along with their associated development challenges.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:
• Understand current 3D printing technologies.
• Understand the advantages of 3D inkjet deposition techniques.
• Explore the potential direction and challenges of using inkjet in industrial 3D printing applications.

Intended audience: those considering using inkjet in a manufacturing process (engineers, scientists, marketing, business development), as well as those generally interested in understanding the scope and strategic potential of inkjet in non-traditional applications.

Rich Baker received a PhD in chemistry at the University of Massachusetts. He has spent his entire career working on inkjet systems and applications, originally with Markem-Image, then FUJIFILM Dimatix, and currently with Integrity Industrial Ink Jet Integration. Integrity Integration designs, develops, and fabricates bespoke industrial print systems for industrial clients.

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SC06: Digital Textile Printing: Inkjet Printheads, Printers, and Industry 4.0
Instructor: Ronald Askeland, HP Inc.
Track: Textile Printing
Level: Introductory

This course focuses on inkjet printheads and printers for digital textile printing.  The history of textile printing, textile market applications and growth rate projections are reviewed.  Fabric composition and construction are described.  Printing inks and finishing processes are compared across fabric types.  Analog and digital textile printing processes are contrasted.  Advantages of digital textile printing and barriers to adoption are explained.  The role of Industry 4.0 and the IoT in the transformation to digital textile manufacturing are described.  Inkjet printheads used in textile printers from major manufacturers are reviewed.  Textile printers from Epson, Mimaki, Hewlett Packard, EFI, Konica Minolta, Dover and SPGPrints are scrutinized and compared.  The latest digital textile printer introductions from ITMA 2019 are reviewed.

Benefits
This course enables attendees to:

  • Compare inkjet printheads and textile printers from major suppliers
  • Understand the advantages and barriers to adoption of digital textile printing
  • Gain an understanding of the different types of fabric composition and construction
  • Describe ink types and finishing processes used for textile printing
  • Understand the role of Industry 4.0 and the IoT in the transformation to digital textile manufacturing

Intended Audience: those somewhat familiar with textile or inkjet printing technology who would like a better understanding of inkjet’s role in the analog to digital conversion of textile printing.

Ronald Askeland is a system architect in the Advanced Technology and Platform Solutions division of HP Inc. in San Diego, where he has been since 2016. He has 35 years of experience in inkjet technology and has been awarded more than 70 US patents on inkjet inks and printing systems. Askeland received his PhD in analytical chemistry from Colorado State University. Previously he worked for HP in San Diego, CA (1984-2011) and Barcelona (2012-2015). Askeland is the author of Inkjet Print Engines in The Handbook of Digital Imaging (edited by Michael Kriss ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.).

12:45 – 13:45 Lunch

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14:00 – 16:00

SC07: Surface Ink Interactions and Surface Characterization
Instructor: Kock-Yee Law, Research and Innovative Solutions
Track: Inkjet Processes
Level: Advanced/Specialist
 
Fundamental understanding of how inks wet, spread, de-wet and pin on a print surface is important not only to the quality of the print output, it is even more crucial to modern printed (or flexible) electronics manufacturing, where print resolution and device functional performance are paramount.  This short course starts with a tutorial on surface characterization and wetting fundamentals.  Discussion includes the understanding of measurement tools for surfaces and coatings, wetting dynamics, and the meanings of these measurements.  The importance of understanding and controlling ink wetting, spreading and evaporation in digital manufacturing is illustrated.  The mechanism for the formation of the “coffee ring” stain will be overviewed and countermeasures will be discussed.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Learn how to upgrade their measurement tools and procedures.
  • Expand their knowledge in ink-surface interactions and be ready for future challenges.

Intended Audience: the course covers a wide range of topics, from surface fundamental to the application of these basic concepts to solve problems in digital printing.  Surface scientists/engineers and researchers in digital fabrication benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art wetting fundamentals and concepts as well as its applications in digital printing.  Managers and executives from both industry and academia should also find it beneficial by learning the importance of fundamental to problem solving in general.

Kock-Yee Law previously from Xerox is now founder at Research and Innovative Solutions, a global provider of technical advice and education services to the high-tech industry.  He has been a prolific researcher with more than 120 peer-reviewed papers, 118 US patents and recently wrote a book entitled Surface Wetting (Springer).  Law is currently on the editorial board for Advances in Colloid and Interface Science and has been active in the NSTI Nanotech Conferences, organizing and chairing symposia and teaching short courses.

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SC08: Insight into New Inkjet Technological Developments from Patent Literature
Instructor: Mike Willis, Pivotal Resources
Track: Inkjet Materials
Level: Overview

This course reviews some of the developments that have occurred over the past 2 years, in particular encompassing printhead and system technology such as ink supplies, nozzle maintenance, and drop detection. The assessment includes thermal inkjet, Landa Digital, and other transfer processes; challenges for high-speed printing such as misting, condensation, and missing nozzle detection and correction; and new applications such as flooring, footwear, and cosmetics.

There are over 300 new patent applications published each month that can give an insight into new inkjet-related developments. However searching for these patents, then filtering out the most interesting ones is time consuming. Willis has been following inkjet patents since the 1980s and regularly monitoring patent applications since 1997.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Understand and benchmark the state of the art in areas examined.
  • Understand some of the issues being faced at the forefront of technology development.
  • Appreciate the value of the information contained within patent literature.
  • Understand the limitations of patent research to avoid false interpretations.

Intended audience: anyone interested in what inkjet developments are taking place that are not yet commercialized, such as scientists, engineers, and program and business development managers.

Mike Willis founded Pivotal Resources, a digital printing industry consultancy, in 1995. He has experience in a wide range of technologies and markets including drop-on-demand and continuous inkjet printing, electrophotographic technology, grayscale and color reproduction methods, and light sensitive materials. He was a founding member of Xaar—a spin-off company from Cambridge Consultants—and before that spent six years at Gestetner developing photocopiers. He graduated from the Polytechnic of Central London with an honours degree in photographic sciences.

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SC09: An Introduction to Digital Fabrication and Additive Manufacturing: Methods, Materials, and Applications
Instructor: James W. Stasiak, HP Labs
Track: Introduction to Fabrication Technologies
Level: Introduction

Over the last two decades, there has been a remarkable convergence of two disparate technologies: commercial and industrial digital printing and the extension of digital printing methods and materials to fabricate and manufacture physical objects. This convergence—a blending of traditional printing methods, advances in materials science, and manufacturing methods—has established a new technology domain which includes digital fabrication of physical objects in three-dimensions and various implementations of additive and digital manufacturing. 

The objective of this short course is to introduce the rapidly emerging science and technology of digital fabrication and manufacturing.  The course begins with an up-to-date overview of the remarkable advances in fabrication methods and strategies, printable and functional materials, and processes that have and are reshaping the way we imagine, design, fabricate, and manufacture technology. We have already seen how digital fabrication and additive manufacturing have enabled new commercial applications and products in domains spanning analog and digital electronics, MEMS and NEMS, sensing, computation, and communications.  Digital fabrication is also transforming and challenging traditional manufacturing paradigms by enabling unprecedented customization and personalization of products.  Perhaps the most remarkable examples of the analog to digital fabrication transformation are in the Life Sciences where digital printing methods,  “biological inks,” bio-inspired and bio-assisted processes promise to revolutionize medical procedures, drug discovery and delivery, and patient care and management. 

At the end of the short course,  we will be able to look back at the factors that influenced and enabled this revolution, understand the current state of the technology, identify challenges and opportunities, and imagine how the paradigm of “printing things”  will enable new technologies and services decades from now.     

Benefits
This course enables attendees to:

  • Develop an understanding of different digital fabrication and additive manufacturing methods and materials.
  • List and compare different applications that range from printed electronics to the life sciences.
  • Develop an understanding of the technology landscape, key players, and practitioners.
  • Evaluate the technological issues and challenges that will guide the evolution of digital fabrication and manufacturing applications and implementations.

Intended Audience: this is a survey course for engineers, scientists, and technical professionals who are interested in the history, current state, and future of digital fabrication and additive manufacturing technologies.

Jim Stasiak is a Distinguished Technologist and Principal Scientist in HP Labs Physical Sciences Division.  His current research is focused on the intersection of nanotechnology, digital printing, and fundamental materials science.  In a career spanning more than 40 years, he has made important contributions in the fields of condensed and soft matter physics, molecular electronics, nanotechnology, and is considered one of the pioneers who transformed digital inkjet technology into a new platform for fabricating and manufacturing using additive methods and functional materials.  In recognition of his contributions and leadership in a wide range of digital printing science and technology, he was the recipient of the 2012 IS&T Johann Gutenberg Prize. He has been an active member of IS&T for more than 25 years and has held various committee and board positions including Vice President (2014-2018).  Most notably, he was instrumental in organizing and launching the inaugural Digital Fabrication Conference in 2005, serving as the conference General Chair in 2005, 2006, and 2017, and as the Executive Program Chair in 2015 and 2016. He is a named inventor on more than 70 issued US patents and is the author of numerous scientific and technical articles and book chapters, and is regularly invited to present focal, keynote and plenary papers at US and international conferences and workshops. In 2019 he was elected IS&T Fellow.

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NEW SC10: The Role of Software to Optimize Print Quality for Industrial Ink Jet Applications
Instructor: Simon Edwards, Global Inkjet Systems
Track: Systems Engineering
Level: Introductory

The industrial print industry is continuously demanding improved print quality with constantly rising expectations.  However, achieving this through accurate machine design, improvements in inkjet printhead fabrication and new features has a limit.  Image management has always been a key factor in achieving high print quality, this has been equally relevant to conventional analogue printing and digital.  Dynamic variation management through closed loop software correction with low latency is required, with the ability to correct nozzle defects, nozzle density normalization and correct color imbalance.  With these capabilities comes the opportunity to address the more demanding print quality requirements of the printing industry where accurate image quality is of high importance and there is little room for error and low defects.

This course will introduce the appropriate application of techniques such as color management, linearization, screening, grey level mapping, ink flow correction, geometry correction and stitching to achieving print performance and image quality.  Many of these techniques are applied pre-print operation and are essentially static during the printing of multiple images during a single print job. However, print conditions can vary dynamically throughout the print job.  The course will also review methods to apply dynamic compensation for image skew, image defects due to nozzle failures, drifts in density and changes in the linearization profile which lead to image defects and color variations.

Benefits
This course enables attendees to:

  • Understand concepts such as basic color correction, linearization, nozzle density correction, printhead stitching, ink flow and geometry correction.
  • Understand closed-loop correction for nozzle out, density and color.
  • Learn where, in the data path from image to serialized data, corrections should take place for optimal performance.
  • Understand potential causes of dynamic variation in print quality and how these can be managed through software correction.
  • Appreciate the issues relating to direct to shape printing and how to accommodate printing onto highly curved surfaces.

Intended Audience: scientists, software developers, system developers and print professionals

Simon Edwards holds a degree in physics and mathematics from the University of Adelaide and studied high energy astrophysics. He holds 49 patents, has more than 25 years of experience in commercialization and development of technology, and has worked in a wide range of technology-rich industries. Previous roles include vice president of research and technology at SOLA International, technical director of Research Laboratories of Australia, co-founder of bStrategic (Australia and UK), and vice president of sales and marketing at Tonejet Limited UK. More recently he joined Global Inkjet Systems–a Cambridge-based company specializing in software, electronics, and services for real world industrial inkjet printing–as product manager.

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16:15 – 18:15

NEW SC11: Exploiting Physical Properties in Printing
Instructor: Travis W. Walker, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Track: Inkjet Processes
Level: Intermediate
The addition of multiple phases to flow systems drastically increases the complexity of the flow physics. The presence of polymers, surfactants, colloids, and particulates in flow systems creates complex fluids or soft materials that respond nonlinearly to stress. A vast number of important manufacturing practices involve multiphase systems that are highly structured and rheologically complex. This statement is especially true when engineering printing systems.
This short course will provide a brief introduction into fundamental transport phenomena with an emphasis on the rheological properties of the printing materials. Discussions focus on answering the following questions:

  • What are complex fluids and soft solids?
  • When are rheological properties important (hint: almost always)?
  • How do different flow fields couple to these rheological properties?
  • How can rheological properties be characterized?
  • Who can provide help in characterizing and interpreting complicated materials?

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Identify problems correctly
  • Understand why certain ideas may or may not be failing
  • Examine specific examples of wide variety of printing applications

Intended Audience:  all members of research and development for printing systems and related fields, including scientists, engineers, technicians, and managers.

Travis Walker Travis Walker is an assistant professor in the department of chemical and biological engineering at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, where he graduated with BS degrees in chemical engineering and applied and computational mathematics. He holds a PhD in chemical engineering from Stanford, and was an assistant professor in the School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University (2013-2017). In 2015, Walker was named Distinguished Young Rheologist by TA Instruments; in 2017, he received an NSF CAREER Award. His work focuses on the development of theoretical and experimental methods that can be applied to the study of complex fluids, soft solids, miscible fluid interactions, and biological systems. He is interested in multiphase systems, the mechanics of materials, and advancing additive manufacturing of multicomponent systems. Walker is also the owner of Dragon Materials, LLC, a contract research laboratory that specializes in the characterization of soft matter.

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NEW SC12: Drying and Sintering Effects in Traditional and Functional Printing
Instructors: Tatiana Zubkova, Chemnitz University of Technology
Track: Inkjet Materials
Level: Overview

The focus of this short course is to review the mechanisms behind post treatment options used in traditional and functional printing and provide an understanding of the physics of those options with materials.

Printing is a very flexible technology to deposit patterned material with a targeted functionality onto the surface of a variety of substrates. The material is generally formulated as a liquid ink that has to satisfy the requirements of specific printing process.

In traditional printing, the pattern is typically a well-defined array of tiny screen-dots carrying the functionality of color impression. In printed electronics the pattern carries the functionalities of conductivity, light emission, electric power etc.  In color printing applications, the functionality is simply formed by drying, i.e., expelling the liquid carrier by heat-enhanced evaporation. In printed electronics that evaporation is often only the initial step of a more complex post-processing to create the required functionalities. Typically, additional annealing and/or sintering steps are required.

One current R&D focus of post-processing in printed electronics is to minimize the temperature used for sensitive polymer substrates and a shortening of the treatment time. For roll-to-roll (R2R) production fast drying/sintering is essential. Due to these requirements convection ovens are losing favor for R2R production. Rather, alternative post-treatment technologies, like near-infrared (NIR), intense pulse light (IPL), and laser, are gaining more and more attention due to their selectivity of ink and substrate and the essential speed of processing.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Understand the mechanisms behind drying and sintering
  • Review the mechanisms of heat transfer
  • Learn about the radiation spectrums involved
  • Learn about major radiation sources: NIR, IPL, Ultraviolet (UV)
  • Understand the interaction of radiation with materials, absorption spectra of substrates & inks
  • Learn about radiation laws and emitter characteristics
  • Hear about case studies from our lab and literature

Tatiana Zubkova obtained her master’s degree in print and media technology at Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany (2017). Since then, she has been working as a scientific research assistant in the Institute for Print and Media Technology at the University, with a focus on traditional printing and sintering techniques.

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SC13: Overview of 2D and 3D Printing
Instructor: Kock-Yee Law, Research and Innovative Solutions
Track: Introduction to Fabrication Technologies
Level: Overview

As modern manufacturing technology is evolving, the trend is to be digital, on demand and green.  Of course, cost and performance - along with risk and benefit - will always be factors when choosing a manufacturing technology.  This short course starts with a brief overview of modern printing technology, such as screen, offsets, electrophotography, inkjet, etc., and its migration to become a 2D additive manufacturing tool for modern electronic devices: displays, photovoltaics, flexible/wearable electronics, sensors, RFID, etc.  This is followed with a review of 3D printing technology, specifically stereolithography, selective sintering, selective melting, direct ink printing, hot melting printing and inkjet printing and so on.  The technical challenges to implement these technologies is also discussed.

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to:

  • Benefit by seeing the entire landscape of 2D and 3D printing technologies.
  • Become familiar with the field and thereby apply this knowledge in the workplace.
  • Broaden their knowledge base and lead to the possible creation of cross-discipline research areas in the future, especially for scientists and engineers.

Intended Audience: scientists, engineers, managers, and executives from both industry and academia.

Kock-Yee Law previously from Xerox is now founder at Research and Innovative Solutions, a global provider of technical advice and education services to the high-tech industry.  He has been a prolific researcher with more than 120 peer-reviewed papers, 118 US patents and recently wrote a book entitled Surface Wetting (Springer).  Law is currently on the editorial board for Advances in Colloid and Interface Science and has been active in the NSTI Nanotech Conferences, organizing and chairing symposia and teaching short courses.

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NEW SC14: Machine Learning Algorithms and Applications in Printing
Instructor: Chunghui Kuo, Eastman Kodak Company
Track: Systems Engineering
Level: Introductory
Prerequisites: Knowledge of Linear Algebra

This course introduces theoretical foundations of the machine learning process. It will explore how the digital printing industry may benefit from technological advancement in artificial intelligence and machine learning to design an “autonomous printing” process in which only minimal human intervention and interaction is required. The course will also discuss applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies in specific printing functions including 3D printing.

More specifically, this course will discuss the following key machine learning concepts, algorithms, and their applications in printing.

  • Supervised learning: support vector machine, convolutional neural network.
  • Unsupervised learning: decision-tree clustering, spectral clustering.
  • Reinforcement learning: temporal-difference learning.
  • Case study: perceptual color difference learning in spectral space..

Benefits
This course enables an attendee to

  • Understand important machine learning algorithms in supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning.
  • Explore potential ML and AI applications in digital printing.
  • Develop skills to design autonomous printing projects for next generation products.

Intended Audience: Engineers and practitioners interested in exploring/adopting ML algorithms within their targeted digital printing workflow.

Chunghui Kuo is a senior scientist at Eastman Kodak Company. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Minnesota and joined Kodak in 2001. His research interest is in image processing, image quality, blind signal separation and classification, and neural network applied in signal processing. He is a Distinguished Inventor and IP coordinator of the Eastman Kodak Company, a senior member of the IEEE Signal Processing Society and the Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology.

Monday 30 September

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10:45 – 12:45

NEW SC15: Color and Appearance in 3D Printing
Instructor: Philipp Urban, Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research IGD
Track: Color Appearance
Level: Overview

Novel 3D printers can combine multiple colorful materials in a single object enabling the reproduction of an object’s color, texture, gloss, and translucency in addition to its shape. This short course provides an overview of the relevant 3D printing technologies and focuses on the color and appearance reproduction pipeline.

Benefits: Attendees will be able to: 

  • Understand the basic concepts of 3D printing as they relate to color and appearance.
  • Understand the differences between the existing color-capable 3D printing technologies.
  • Describe ways to represent color and other appearance properties attached to 3D shapes.
  • Learn the main principles of the 3D color reproduction pipeline.
  • Have a basic understanding of 3D surface halftoning.

Intended audience: attendees wishing to become more familiar with the opportunities and challenges of the emerging field of graphical 3D printing, which may include color and imaging specialists, 3D printer designers, and software developers.

Philipp Urban is head of the Competence Center 3D Printing Technology at the Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt, Germany, where he works on the appearance reproduction of objects using multimaterial 3D printers. Previously, he was a visiting scientist at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory at RIT and head of the color research group at TU Darmstadt. He holds an MS in mathematics from University of Hamburg and a PhD from Hamburg University of Technology.

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