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Standards for CHI 27 Jan
Advancing the Image
22 Feb
Unlocking the Text 30 March
Entering the Metaverse 26 April
Recordings End 31 July



DigiTIPS 2022 Program Details

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Session 1—It's Not That Hard, but It's Not that Easy: International Standards and Guidelines for Cultural Heritage


International standards and guidelines are the framework around which cultural heritage institutions capture and share digital surrogates of their collections. What are those standards, and how are they changing? Who is using them? How are they being utilized in the field? This session introduces the current standards, as well as dives deeper into the relevant updates and new guidelines.


Truth in Imaging: Standards and Guidelines for Cultural Heritage, Peter D. Burns, president, Burns Digital Imaging LLC
Abstract: For the past two decades, imaging experts organized under the ISO have developed standardized approaches for how to evaluate digital camera and scanner imaging performance. For example, measuring; resolution, exposure, noise, geometric distortion, and color. Several of these have been adopted under guidelines for imaging practice for cultural heritage communities. We describe how imaging guidelines are used to specify requirements, select equipment, and support quality assurance efforts. They have been instrumental in debunking the 'specsmanship' of marketing materials, and establishing a true, reliable connection between objects and images.
Sneak Peek at FADGI Updates, Don Williams, CEO, Image Science Associates
Abstract: Coming
US National Archives Digitization Regulations, Michael Horsley, electronic record format specialist, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
Abstract: NARA and Office of Management and Budget issued the memorandum M-19-21 that directs NARA to issue updated regulations and clear policies that permit agencies to digitize records created in analog formats and, where appropriate, dispose of analog originals. This presentation provides an update to the current status of the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) digitization regulations with a focus on the incorporation of the Federal Agencies Digital Guidelines Initiative (FADGI) technical guidelines. The standards in the regulation define the records management, quality control, and validation steps necessary to create digital surrogates that will serve as the new records copy in compliance with M-19-21. 
"Are they doing it right?"  Vendor Compliance for FADGI and M-19-21, Jim Studnicki, president, Creekside Digital
Abstract: Working with vendors can be an attractive option for the digitization of certain collections. But what can be done to maximize the chance of a successful outcome when vending out FADGI-compliant digitization work? Moreover, how can we tell that a vendor is doing their job and adhering to the FADGI guidelines and project specifications? This presentation will also explore M-19-21's impact on vendor-processed projects outside of the cultural heritage community.

Session 2—Advancing The Image: Scientific Imaging vs. Digitization


In the cultural heritage community, "imaging," and "digitization," are sometimes used interchangeably, but are they in fact the same approach? What do scientific (or advanced) imaging and digitization have in common? How do they differ? Do the same standards and guidelines apply to both? Could one approach be improved by deploying some methods of the other? The session begins with a point/counterpoint discussion on imaging and digitization in cultural heritage collections, with deeper dives on both methods and a moderated discussion among all the speakers.


Point/Counterpoint Imaging vs. Digitization: Is there a Difference? Fenella G. France, chief, Preservation Research and Testing Division, and Thomas Rieger, manager, digitization services, Digital Services Directorate, Library of Congress
Abstract: Using the terms digitization and imaging interchangeably has led to confusion when people refer to "imaging" as scanning. Integrating these approaches is a powerful tool for preserving and accessing heritage collections, with the need for a thoughtful nuanced approach to determine when to digitize, when to hybrid and "digi-image, and when cultural heritage exploration leads to a pure spectral imaging focus. Modern CH digitization and imaging initiatives blend science, technology, a sprinkle of art, and a large dollop of business management to tackle the challenge of digitizing millions of images a year in a sustainable, verifiable, and cost-effective way—while deciding which ones to explore more via advanced imaging techniques. Learn more about this from two of the world's leading experts in mass digitization and advanced imaging, Tom Rieger and Fenella France, respectively.
Imaging to Support Conservation and Research of Heritage Objects, E. Keats Webb, imaging scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Abstract: The research and work conducted at the Smithsonian’s Museum Conservation Institute (MCI) Imaging Studio intersects three main categories of cultural heritage imaging: collections photography, conservation documentation, and scientific imaging. These categories are defined by different techniques, workflows, and applications, yet they are interrelated and overlap. Methods are borrowed from these categories (techniques, workflows, and best practices) to improve different techniques and resulting imagery with the aim of providing accurate and reliable records to support the conservation and research of Smithsonian collections.
Advanced/3D Imaging (Title tbc), Pedro Santos, head of Competence Center Cultural Heritage Digitization, Fraunhofer IGD
Abstract: Coming
Advancing the Image Through Automation: Leveraging the Interplay Between Human and Machine, Michael J. Bennett, head of Digital Imaging and Conservation, University of Connecticut
Abstract: Imaging automation systems are examined from the perspectives of initial workflow mapping, prototyping, and the identification of bottlenecks and unwanted variance.  The interplay of human, machine, and software are then discussed in the context of flexible system design, and rapid, iterative imaging. Achievable quality, and consistency of resulting image sets are finally noted in a broader reflection on traditional vs. newly evolving views of "scale" and their implications on raw and rendered image data within memory institutions.
For Whom the Belt Rolls: Designing Purposeful Conveyor Automation in Digitization, Peter Grisafi, imaging specialist, PICTURAE Inc.
Abstract: Automation in digitization must be designed to serve the purposes of the digital images and data created. While a conveyor brings efficiency to automation, it alone lacks sufficiency for a complete digitization workflow. This talk illustrates how Picturae’s conveyor systems go beyond image capture and integrate into the broader goals of digital collections.

Session 3—Unlocking the Text: Tools for Taking Text Beyond Just the Image


Historically, the digitization of text-based cultural heritage collections has focused on capture and access; now, with advancing tools and growing digital collections, an image of the text is not enough. Today institutions and their users require that text-based collections are searchable, transcribable, and harvestable. This session discusses informatics tools for new methods of seeing and understanding collections such as OCR, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and data visualization to enhance digitized collections at scale. While there have been standards and guidelines on the capture of text-based collections for decades, as we continue to grow the needs and abilities of tools like OCR, ML, and AI, are there similar standards for creating these large data sets of cultural heritage texts?


  • Crowdsourcing transcription: Emily Cain, Smithsonian Institution
  • Crowdsourcing transcription tools: Victoria Van Hyning, University of Maryland
  • Artificial Intelligence for text-based collections: Julie McVey, National Geographic Society, and Doug Peterson, Digital Transitions
  • Building Capacity for Data-Driven Scholarship: Jamie Rogers, Florida International University Libraries

Additional speakers are being confirmed.

Session 4—Entering the Metaverse: Collections Data 


For cultural heritage institutions, the shift to more remote and/or hybrid work brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic has allowed for increased attention to collections data: cleaning it, crosswalking it, opening it, sharing it, and reconsidering how it describes the institution's holdings. This session focuses on methods to expand the usability and authenticity of cultural heritage collections data, such as accessibility initiatives, crosswalking metadata between various schema, and the emerging practice of "reparative cataloging," which aims to consider and address historical cataloging practices that have excluded, misunderstood, discriminated, or harmed invested communities.


  • Accessibility: Julia Kim, National Library for the Blind and Print Disabled
  • Guidelines for Writing Image Descriptions for Digital Accessibility: James Tiller and Cailin Meyer, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  • Accessibility: David Riecks, Caroline Desrosiers, and Michael Steidl, IPTC Photo Metadata Working Group
  • Reparative cataloging: Jessica BrodeFrank, Adler Planetarium/ University of London

Additional speakers are being confirmed.

Supplemental Short Courses

Expand your knowledge by registering to download the course notes and view the recordings of these Archiving 2021 Short Courses. See the Attend tab for fees.

SC04 Best Practices for Implementing a FADGI Compliant Color Digitization Workflow    Instructors: David R. Wyble and Thomas Rieger    Length: 4 hours

SC05 Updated Scanner & Camera Imaging Performance: Ten Commandments    Instructors: Peter Burns & Don Williams    Length: 2 hours

SC06 Digitization of Federal Records to Comply with US National Archives Regulations    Instructors: Michael Horsley and Don Williams     Length: 2 hours

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